Math: Brackets

CharacterDescriptionHTML entityUnicodeMac shortcutWindows shortcut
[left square bracket (opening)[5Alt 0091
]right square bracket (closing)]6Alt 0093
{Left curly bracket (opening){8Alt 0123
}right curly bracket (closing)}9Alt 0125
left angle bracket (opening)⟨⟨
right angle bracket (closing)⟩⟩

Math: Equivalence

CharacterDescriptionHTML entityUnicodeMac shortcutWindows shortcut
similar to∼∼
asymptotic to / almost equal to≈≈X
congruent≅≅
equivalent / identical to≡≡
not equal to≠≠0

Math: Algebra

CharacterDescriptionHTML entityUnicodeMac shortcutWindows shortcut
minus sign−−
±plus-minus sign±±+Alt 0177
radical sign ("square root")√√V
dot operator / interpunct⋅⋅9
×multiplication sign / times sign××Alt 0215
asterisk operator∗∗
÷division sign (obelus)÷÷.Alt 0241
¼fraction one quarter¼¼Alt 0188
½fraction one half½½Alt 0189
¾fraction three quarters¾¾Alt 1090
proportional to∝∝
infinity sign∞∞,
<less than&lt;&#x003C;Alt 0060
less than or equal to&le;&#x2264;<
>greater than&gt;&#x003E;Alt 0062
greater than or equal to&ge;&#x2265;<

Math: Analysis / Calculus

CharacterDescriptionHTML entityUnicodeMac shortcutWindows shortcut
ƒmathematical function ƒ(x)&fnof;&#x0192;FAlt 0131
integral&int;&#x222B;B
partial differential&part;&#x2202;D

Math: Geometry

CharacterDescriptionHTML entityUnicodeMac shortcutWindows shortcut
angle&ang;&#x2220;
perpendicular to / orthogonal to&perp;&#x22A5;
°degree sign&deg;&#x00B0;ÜAlt 0176
minutes&prime;&#x2032;
seconds&Prime;&#x2033;

Math: Vector analysis

CharacterDescriptionHTML entityUnicodeMac shortcutWindows shortcut
direct sum&oplus;&#x2295;
tensor product&otimes;&#x2297;
nabla / differential operator&nabla;&#x2207;
dot operator / scalar product&sdot;&#x22C5;9
×cross product&times;&#x00D7;Alt 0215

Logic

CharacterDescriptionHTML entityUnicodeMac shortcutWindows shortcut
and (logical conjunction)&and;&#x2227;
or (logical disjunction)&or;&#x2228;
¬not sign (negation)&not;&#x00AC;Alt 0172
exclusive disjunction ("either … or")&oplus;&#x2295;
therefore&there4;&#x2234;
element of&isin;&#x2208;
not an element of&notin;&#x2209;
contains as member&ni;&#x220B;
for all&forall;&#x2200;
exists&exist;&#x2203;
empty set / diameter&empty;&#x2205;
intersection / cap&cap;&#x2229;
union / cup&cup;&#x222A;
superset of&sup;&#x2283;
superset of or equal to&supe;&#x2287;
subset of&sub;&#x2282;
subset of or equal to&sube;&#x2286;
not a subset of&nsub;&#x2284;
material conditional (implication)&rarr;&#x2192;
if and only if (biconditional)&harr;&#x2194;
ΔDelta / difference&Delta;&#x0394;K

Mathematical letters

CharacterDescriptionHTML entityUnicodeMac shortcutWindows shortcut
µmicro sign (my)&micro;&#x00B5;MAlt 0181
black-letter R (real part of complex numbers)&real;&#x211C;
black-letter I (imaginary part of complex numbers)&image;&#x2111;
aleph (cardinality)&alefsym;&#x2135;
script capital P (Weierstrass p)&weierp;&#x2118;
summation operator&sum;&#x2211;W
product operator&prod;&#x220F;P